A Brief History of CHESS
The infantry is advancing. Attacking steadily, step by step. Their knights have proven their skills. And their elephants already have broken defensive lines. A King tries to retreat, but enemy cavalry flanks him. Escape is impossible. And it’s his fate to die there. For more articles visit our site Ilmu علموبابا.
But the good thing is this is not a real war. Neither is it just a game. Over the roughly one and half millennia of its existence, CHESS has been known as a tool of military strategy, a metaphor for human affairs, and a benchmark for genius.
While the earliest records of chess are from the 7th century, legend tells the game’s origins like a century earlier. Supposedly, when the youngest Prince of the Gupta Empire was killed in battle. His brother devised a way of representing the scene to their grieving mother, set on the 8 by 8 ASHTAPADA board. This board was used for other popular pastimes.
And then the game emerged with two key features. One was the “different rules” for moving different types of pieces and “a single King piece” whose fate determined the outcome of the game. The board was originally known as “Chaturanga”. Chaturanga is a Sanskrit word that means “four divisions”. But with this spread to Sassanid Persia, it acquired its current name and terminology chess derived from “SHAH” meaning “KING” and “CHECKMATE” from “SHAHMAT” or “the King is helpless”.
After the 7th century’s Islamic conquest of Persia, chess was introduced to the Arab world, transcending its role as a tactical simulation. It eventually became a rich source of poetic imagery. Diplomats and courtiers used chess terms to describe political power. Ruling khalifs became avid players themselves. And historian ALMASUDI considered the game a testament to human free will, compared to games of chance.
Medieval trade along the Silk Road carried the game to East and Southeast Asia where many local variants developed. In China, chess pieces were placed at intersections of board squares, rather than inside them, as in the native strategy game “Go”. The reign of Mongolian leader Tamerlane Saw 11 by 10 boards with safe squares called citadels. And in Japanese shogi, captured pieces could be used by the opposing player.
But it was in Europe that chess began to take on its modern form. By 1000 AD the game had become part of Courtney’s education. Chess was used as an allegory for different social classes performing their proper roles. And the pieces were reinterpreted in their new context.
At the same time, the church remained suspicious of the game. Moralists cautioned against devoting too much time to them with chess even being briefly banned in France. Yet the game proliferated, and the 15th-century sword cohering into the form we know today. The relatively weak piece of advisor was recast as a more powerful Queen, perhaps inspired by the recent surge of strong female leaders. This change accelerated the gamespace and as other rules were popularized treatise it’s analyzing common openings and endgames appeared.
Chess theory was born. With the Enlightenment era, the game moved from Royal Courts to coffeehouses chest was now seen as an expression of creativity, encouraging bold moves and dramatic plays .this “romantic” style reached its peak in the immortal game of 1851 where Adolf Anderssen managed checkmate after sacrificing his Queen and both rooks.
But the emergence of formal competitive play in the late 19th century meant that strategic calculation would eventually trump dramatic flair. And with the rise of international competition chess took on new geopolitical importance.
During the Cold War, the Soviet Union devoted great resources to cultivating chest talent, dominating the championships for the rest of the century. But the player who would truly upset Russian dominance was not a citizen of another country but an IBM computer called “deep blue”.
Chess-playing computers have been developed for decades, but Deep Blue’s triumph over Gary Kasparov in 1997 was the first time a machine defeated a sitting champion. Today chess software is capable of consistently defeating the best human players. But just like the game they’ve mastered these machines are products of human ingenuity. And perhaps that same ingenuity will guide us out of this apparent checkmate.
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اس آرٹیکل کو بہتر بنانے میں ہماری مدد کریں
اگر آپ کو اس آرٹیکل میں کوئی غلطی نظر آ رہی ہے۔ تو درست اور قابلِ اعتبار معلومات کی فراہمی میں ہماری مدد کریں۔ ہم درست معلومات کی ترسیل کے لیے سخت محنت کرتے ہیں ۔
اگر آپ بھی ہمارے ساتھ معلومات کا تبادلہ کرنا چاہتے ہیں تو ہماری اس کمیونٹی میں شامل ہو کر معلومات کے سلسلے کو بڑھانے میں ہماری مدد کریں۔